Pumps and motors are one of the cores of urban living. We all use these pumps and motors in our daily life, but might not know the importance of it. One of the most commonly used pumps among all is – Centrifugal pump, which is used in most of our urban activities. These pumps are used for the pumping needs of industries, agriculture, as well as domestic for low-viscosity of fluid.
Continue to read on, if you are intrigued about the Centrifugal Pumps.
Centrifugal pumps are the most popular and commonly used pump to move fluids. In simple terms, these pumps make use of rotating impellers to move solid fluids. Centrifugal pumps help to move fluids from one place to another. This is used in various industry applications where the fluid needs to be moved from one location to another. The process of centrifugal pumps include transferring or energizing the flow of liquids. More than 85% of the world production of the pumps consists of the production of centrifugal pumps. Centrifugal pumps are popular because of their high efficiency and performance.
Centrifugal pump consists of an impeller that is its most important component. An impeller is a series of curved vanes which are fit between two discs. When liquid enters the casing and falls on the blade, that makes an impeller to rotate creating a centrifugal force that moves fluid outward. The process keeps on repeating until the fluid leaves the impeller. This action of the impeller speed ups the fluid’s velocity and pressure.
These pumps offer simple and low-cost solutions to most low-pressure pumping applications.
The overall efficiency of centrifugal pumps depends on its mechanical, volumetric efficiency, hydraulic efficiency, pump size, flow rate, fluid resistance, etc. Hence, following are the major factors that affect the performance of centrifugal pumps.
Mechanical efficiency of the centrifugal pump is the ratio of theoretical power that pump needs to operate the real power delivered to itself. In this case, the formula of mechanical efficiency is used to identify the power lost in particular moving parts such as bearings, mechanical seals, and stuffing boxes(in case of packed gland pumps). Mechanical efficiency helps in determining the amount of power pump that it must have to perform optimally.
2. Volumetric efficiency
Volumetric efficiency defines the ratio of real flow rate that pump delivers to the theoretical discharge flow rate. The formula of volumetric efficiency helps centrifugal pumps to determine the volume of liquid that is lost during its operation due to the leak. This way it avoids any leakage.
3. Hydraulic efficiency
Hydraulic efficiency of the centrifugal pump is mainly affected by the impeller and volute casing. It includes liquid friction of the pump as well as other losses in volute and impeller. Hydraulic efficiency is one of the largest factors affecting the performance of centrifugal pumps rather than any other factors. It can be said that the hydraulic efficiency of a centrifugal pump can affect its overall performance efficiency.
Other than these factors, there are few other factors that too affect the performance of centrifugal pumps. They are – operating temperature and pressure, NPSH(Net Positive Suction Head) and cavitation, working fluid viscosity, vapor pressure, etc.
Centrifugal pumps are divided into three different groups:
1.Radial Flow Pumps
A radial flow pump is a velocity pump in which a rotating impeller moves the liquid as per the speed of the rotating impeller and throws liquid outward at the right angle. This pump can be used in all phases of emergency whether for pumping a low or medium flow rate.
Radial flow pumps are majorly used for irrigation and drainage of agricultural lands, sewage applications, cooling water for thermal, and nuclear power plants, handling sea water, fresh water supply, boiler feed, etc. These pumps are supplied mostly in horizontal configuration but the option of vertical configuration is also available.
2. Mixed Flow Pumps
Referring to the name of the pump, this pump has a mixed flow impeller. Mixed flow pumps cover the range of transition at average between radial and axial flow pumps. Impellers fit in this type of pumps with low specific speed are combined with an annular or volute casting , whereas the impeller with high specific speed are combined with a diffuser and tubular casing.
Mixed flow pumps are frequently supplied in the single-stage vertical configuration with a diffuser, even though horizontal and vertical designs are available with volute casing in two-stage designs.
3. Axial Flow Pumps
These are the dynamic pumps, which belong to the family of flow pumps. An axial flow impeller is fitted in it. Axial flow pumps are used for high flow rate and low delivery head. These pumps transport the fluid by using the pressure differences at the impeller vanes.
Axial flow pumps can be set up either vertically or in inclined configuration with a diffuser. However, horizontal design with volute casing is also an option. To set-up this pump, both wet-pit with suction bell and dry-pit with suction elbow are options. Axial flow pumps generate velocity with the help of an impeller to apply the centrifugal force to the displacing liquid.
The application of centrifugal pumps range from industries to domestic uses. The industrial applications of centrifugal pumps in India includes below major industries:
One of the major industrial applications of centrifugal pumps is in the Chemical industry. Centrifugal pumps are used in the chemical industry to move the solid fluids or liquids including toxic and corrosive liquids. Centrifugal pumps can be also used in the chemical industry to move the fluid from one location to another, say from a storage tank to a reactor. Some of the common applications in the chemical industry include: pumping liquids, chemicals, corrosive fluids, flammable fluids, viscous fluids, etc.
Centrifugal pumps are widely used in the agriculture industry. Centrifugal pumps in the agriculture industry help to move water from reservoirs or lakes to fields. It can also be used to power farm equipment such as tractors and combines. Centrifugal pumps are most reliable when it comes to the smooth operation of plants. As these pumps are capable of handling it all, whether it is a liquid, fluid, water, slurry, or sewage. Centrifugal pumps ensure the correct operation of the entire irrigation system.
3.Water treatment plants
In water treatment plants, centrifugal pumps are used for a number of applications, such as filtration applications, disinfection applications, saltwater desalination, etc. Centrifugal pumps work to move water from one location to another and sometimes to circulate the water. In some terms, they are also used to clean the pipelines and surfaces with high pressure.
In oil refineries, there are process units in which liquids are to be transformed with centrifugal pumps. Mostly two types of centrifugal pumps are used in oil refining industries: 1) Process pumps to handle high viscosity 2) Utility pumps for general purpose. Utility pumps are used to transfer crude oil from storage tanks to process units, whereas process pumps help to move refined products from one location to another. Adding to it, centrifugal pumps in the oil refining industry are also used in offshore oil and gas production platforms.
Paper mills are one of the most common industrial applications of centrifugal pumps. Centrifugal pumps are taken in use to move the pulping of solid fibrous paper. The paper stock is slurry which has to be removed via the pumping process. The centrifugal pump separates solid fibers from the paper stock and ensures the further process of pumping goes smoothly. For the wastewater process in paper mills, they also use centrifugal pumps.
Centrifugal pumps are the most suitable for power plants because they hold the capability to handle hefty liquids and then operate at high pressure. To circulate the water in the cooling system, transferring fuel oil and lubricating oil, and pumping water from the condenser to the boiler – in all of these centrifugal pumps are proven effective. Radial flow pumps are commonly used in power plants, as they operate at high pressure compared to other centrifugal pumps.
In the mining industry, centrifugal pumps are considered to manage very high flow rate at low to moderate discharge pressures. The use of centrifugal pumps in the mining industry includes: boosting water pressure, creating a vacuum, processing of minerals, transporting slurry, dewatering operations, and more as such. Centrifugal pumps are proven safe and quickly working in the mining industry.
8.Food processing plants
Centrifugal pumps benefit in many ways to the food processing plants in terms of transferring liquids from one to another location, recirculating liquids, cooling down liquids, etc. This pump has an extensive use in the food industry. Moreover, these pumps can be customized as per specific needs of one for any food processing application.
Military industry has the vast usage of centrifugal pumps in the areas of moving fuel from tank to engine, moving hydraulic fluid around a ship, moving fluids around military bases, and puring treatments. For each use, a different type of centrifugal pump is used as per its specifications such as – aircraft fuel pumps, shipboard hydraulic pumps, and ground support equipment pumps. These pumps also serve sewage treatment facilities.
This industry uses centrifugal pumps for bilge pumping, water supply, fuel transferring, and fire fighting. Additionally, they are also used in sewage transferring and waste material transferring. To create a vacuum environment within a ship’s hull during its construction or repairing time, centrifugal pumps are considered to be used. Common uses of centrifugal pumps in shipbuilding industry include: removing water accumulated in the bilge area of ship, watering to the areas of ship that are on fire, transferring freshwater and fuel.
Advantages of Using Centrifugal Pumps
Centrifugal pumps are most reliable and efficient for all above industries. Each and every industry we talked about before, takes the advantages of centrifugal pumps in its convenient way using different types of centrifugal pumps. Here are the common advantages that centrifugal pumps serve to all:
The uses of centrifugal pumps have never been restricted to any industries. The size of industry is not the matter when it comes to the efficiency=y and effectiveness of centrifugal pumps. If you lead in one of those industries and want your plants to work even more better, then you are probably in need of our Centrifugal Process Pumps, that are most preferred for any industrial and domestic use. Sujal Engineering manufactures one of the best ranges of centrifugal pumps in the industry market. Give the best type of application to your industrial needs!